Ketamine, broken down and described
Threshold : 10 - 15 mg
Light : 15 - 30 mg
Common : 30 - 75 mg
Strong : 60 - 125 mg
The K Hole : 100 - 250 mg
Onset : 5 - 15 minutes
Duration : 45 - 60 minutes
Normal After Effects : 1 - 3 hours
Threshold : 40 - 50 mg
Light : 50 - 100 mg
Common : 75 - 300 mg
Strong : 200 - 450 mg
The K Hole : 500 + mg
Onset : 5 - 20 minutes (depending on stomach contents)
Duration : 90 minutes
Normal After Effects : 4 - 8 hours
Ketamine is a hallucinogenic drug used in human and veterinary medicine, primarily for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, usually in combination with a sedative. Other uses include sedation and anestheticin intensive care, (particularly in emergency medicine), and treatment of bronchospasm (a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the lungs bronchioles).
Ketamine was originally developed as a medicine in 1965 as a derivative of phencyclidine (PCP), which was synthesized in 1926. It became popular among recreational users in the 1970’s but remains a ‘core’ medicine in the World Health Organization’s “Essential Drugs List”, a list of minimum medical needs for a basic healthcare system.
This substance is a dissocitive which falls into the arylcyclohexylamine class of chemicals, and possesses NMDA receptor antagonist properties. NMDA receptors allow for electrical signals to pass between neurones in the brain and spinal column; for the signals to pass, the receptor must be open. NMDA receptor antagonists close the NMDA receptors by blocking them. This disconnection of neurones leads to loss of feeling, difficulty moving, and eventually the famous “k-hole”.
This drug is the most famous of the classical dissociative hallucinogens and exhibits a wide array of complex subjective effects which are described in detail below…
Assuming the substance has been insufflated, the very first physical effect hat is noticed is a sharp but relatively painless sensation within the nostril. An unpleasant taste is present for 15 - 20 minutes after insufflation and seems to come and go in an unpredictable manner.
At lower dosages, the physical sensations produced by the trip itself can be broken down into two distinct sensations. The first is a sharp, pleasurable tingling sensation which is location specific to the hands, feet and head. The second is a warm euphoric glow which emanates outwards from the centre of the body’s torso. Alongside of this, a significant decrease in the body’s overall weight is felt. This creates sensations of being extremely light and floaty in a way which is not necessarily stimulating, but still encouraging towards the act of moving around and engaging in physical activities.
As dosage increases, the physical sensations induced by the trip begin to become encompassed by feelings of physical detachment. This begins with feeling as if you are becoming removed from the body with a proportional loss of motor control and tactile sensation that increases along side of it. These sensations of dosage relative physical detachment are often described as feeling as if your body is not your own or feeling as if its movements have become partially to fully autonomous. As this effect increases motor control and bodily awareness are completely lost as total detachment from the physical senses and out of body experiences begin to take toll. This is accompanied by significant changes in the perceived direction and pull of gravity which results in feelings of flying over vast distances in multiple directions and varying speeds.
It’s worth noting that high dose ketamine trips can sometimes result in nausea and vomiting at the peak of trip. For most people, this is surprisingly not as unpleasant as they would initially expect due to the accompanying detachment from the physical senses.
The most noticeable change in mental perception within the ketamine trip can be defined as a mild to complete detachment from the self and conscious awareness, which is the very definition of psychological dissociation. At lower levels this is usually described as feeling somehow separate and withdrawn from the external environment, as if life has somehow become a vague dream or film that plays out in front of you. Alongside of this, feelings of partial to complete autonomy associated with your thought stream and spoken conversation are often noted. As dosage increases, the cognitive detachment and dissociation eventually becomes so all-encompassing that ego death is inevitably reached, this is usually during high level out of body experiences. Along side of this, ketamine exhibits states of therapeutic dissociated introspection and spontaneous environment specific states of unity and interconnectedness.
It has also shown that ketamine, if taken even in small doses, is very effective for patients suffering from chronic depression and bipolar disorder. Specific studies which can be read about here and here have shown that the effect of the drug is immediate or within 2 hours and consistent in relieving patient’s depressive and/or suicidal symptoms, lasting up to 3 days after a single dosage. In comparison, common antidepressents, such as Prozac, are entirely ineffective for 40% of the population and can take weeks to show effects. This gives ketamine the potential to become an indispensable tool in the treatment of depression and bipolar, which is currently being held back by institutionalised drug prohibition. The mechanism behind this has been shown by studies which can be read about here. It stems from the way in which ketamine triggers the release of glutamate, which is a neurotransmitter that immediately stimulates the growth of damaged synapses which have been damaged by stress and depression.
At lower levels of dissociation, the visual effects of ketamine can be described as the onset of a progressive detachment from the perception of sight and the brain’s ability to process it. This begins with blurred and doubled vision which leads onto the external environment, appearing as if it is being watched through a screen that becomes proportionally more distant dependent on dosage. Accompanying this, visual geometry similar in style to that of a psychedelic trip occurs. This experience is limited to level 1 - 4 experiences however and appears as significantly more colourful and intricate than anything found within MXE, but equal in complexity to that of DXM. Open eye perspective distortions such as alterations in the perception of size and distance attributed to the self and / or the external environment are commonly present.
Other dissociative specific visual distortions and alterations such as scenery slicing and environmental cubism are also present. As overall visual detachment increases in perfect proportion to its physical counterpart, out of body experiences eventually begin to set in. This takes a person’s conscious awareness into a place which can only be described as entering a vast and dark void, space or hole. It is commonly referred to by the drug community as “The k-hole” and contains within it an infinite array of level 1 - 4 hallucinatory structures.
Alongside of this, fully 3-dimensional hallucinatory states such as autonomous entity contact, landscapes and concepts are occasionally present, but significantly less consistent in their manifestation than psychedelics and deliriants.
At lower levels of detachment, a greatly enhanced sense of music appreciation becomes present. This can be described as the sensation of being able to comprehend and pay attention to each and every layer of sound to a complex piece of music. As dissociation increases however, sound can eventually become muffled, distant and extremely hard to perceive. Alongside of this, distortions in noise volume perception are often extremely altered at random points creating the sensation that everything is abnormally loud or silent.
Health effects, addiction potential and tolerance:
There are multiple dangers associated with compulsive ketamine abuse. It is because of this that I highly recomend doing as much research as you possibly can before considering trying this drug.
Extreme ketamine use can injure the bladder, causing ulcers (wounds) and fibrosis (stiffening of the bladder walls and shrinkage). This is strictly associated with regular overuse of ketamine and results in urinary frequency, urgency, pressure, pain, incontinence and/or bleeding from the bladder. They can receive a variety of diagnoses including ulcerative bladder, interstitial cystitis or ketamine cystitis.
Ketamine is also psychologically addictive when used on a regular basis. This can be avoided however by manually limiting your usage and not taking it compulsively.
Fatal ketamine overdoses are particularly rare but not completely unheard of. The LD50 for ketamine when injected into mice is 400mg/kg. As humans are generally more sensitive to drugs we devide it by 2, making 200mg/kg the estimated human lethal dose. Assuming the human weighs a conservative 50kg, this would require the lethal dosage to be atleast 10 grams. 40 times the amount of 250mg necessary for a highdose K-hole experience.
In terms of ketamine tolerance, this can take weeks to build up for some but for others it can take a single night of heavy use. Once a physical tolerance to ketamine has set itself in, it can often take a month or more to reset itself.
- The increase in illicit use prompted ketamine’s placement in Schedule III of the United States Controlled Substance Act in August 1999.
- In the United Kingdom, it became labeled a Class C drug on 1 January 2006.
- In Canada, ketamine is classified as a Schedule I narcotic, as of August 2005.
- In Hong Kong, as of 2000, ketamine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. It can only be used legally by health professionals, for university research purposes, or with a physician’s prescription.
- By 2002, ketamine was classified as schedule III in Taiwan.
Ketamine and dissociatives in general are a truly fascinating experience which open up a whole new world completely unlike anything found with the world of psychedelics. However, they are not nearly as insightful and something which I only try on a very rare basis due to their addictive potential and adverse health effects.
A Comprehensive Analysis of Hallucinogen Induced States of Unity and Interconnectedness
I am writing this article to serve as a dedicated analysis and description regarding my current understanding towards what I consider to be the most profound and important freestanding component within the entirety of the hallucinogenic experience. In the past, I have already written about the experience of states of unity and interconnectedness within this article here. This piece of writing however makes the incorrect assumption that this state is exclusively associated with level 7B visual geometry. It was also written from a perspective which is extremely limited in comparison to the understanding which I have since built up over the past few months. However, it is extremely important for me to make it clear that I have not come even remotely close to fully grasping or even comprehending both the logic behind this experience and its many potential consequences.
This is a level of understanding which I do not expect to ever reach. Despite this however, I am determined to steadily progress what I have already learnt through a combination of constant analysis and in-depth discussions with an increasingly large amount of people who have undergone this component.
To begin with, I will describe the specific subjective experience and consistent effects of this component in as much detail as possible.
It starts with a change in perspective which is consistently interpreted as the lifting of a deeply embedded and all encompassing illusion. The destruction of this leads onto feelings that the tripper has undergone some sort of profound “awakening” or “enlightenment”.
This illusion feels as though it has always been in place, forcing a person’s perspective of the world into feeling as if their concept of “self” or “I” with which they identify themselves as, is assumed to intrinsically follow two fundamental rules. The first of these rules is that the self is inherently separate from the external environment and could not possibly extend into it. The second is that the self is specifically limited to not even the physical body as a whole, but exclusively a person’s ego or internal narrative and the image of their own personality as built up through social interactions with other people.
Once removed, the absence of this inbuilt illusion can lead onto two possible levels of cognitive intensities which both follow very consistent and interlocking themes.
The lower and more basic of these two levels can be referred to as external environment specific states of unity and interconnectedness. It can be described as a loss of perceived boundaries between the physical body and either the entirety of the external environment or specific things contained within it. This is felt to be the result of a person’s central sense of self becoming attributed to not just the internal narrative of the ego but in equal measure, to the human body in its entirety and the things around it which it is physically connected to through the senses. This creates the undeniable perspective that the external environment is no longer a separate world which the “I” is confronting and disconnected from, but a single unified system of behaviour. This experience provides the perspective that you are the external environment experiencing itself through the specific point within it that this body’s physical sensory awareness and conscious thought happens to reside in. This sensation is generally described by most people as “becoming one with the things around me”.
The most common and relatable examples of states of unity and interconnectedness, which are manifested as specific to the external environment, include but are certainly not limited to the following perspectives:
- Becoming one with a specific object which you are interacting with.
- Becoming one with a specific person which you interacting with.
(particularly common if engaging in sexual activities)
- Becoming one with large crowds of people.
(particularly common at raves and music festivals)
- Becoming one with immediately perceivable nature but not man kind.
- Becoming one with the immediate external environment as a whole.
The second and highest level of intensity for this component can be referred to as all encompassing states of unity and interconnectedness. It is at this point of intensity when the experience become infinitely more profound and limitless in its effects.
Once this level is reached, the external systems which a person’s central sense of self has become attributed to and one with is no longer limited to the immediately perceivable environment. Instead, it envelops and becomes attributed to the entirety of a person’s internally stored model of reality, existence and the universe as a whole.
This creates the sudden undeniable perspective that you are literally the entire universe experiencing itself, exploring itself and performing actions onto itself through the very specific point of space and time which your ego and conscious perception happens to reside in.
This is a feeling that when experienced, is immediately and universally understood to be an undeniable truth by anybody who undergoes it. It results in a number of profound consequences and changes in worldview or philosophical perspective which seem to follow fairly consistent themes across almost all people who experience this component. These include but are certainly not limited to:
- A new system of ethics which values the well being of the external as on par with the importance of the ego.
- The sensation that talking to others is the experience of engaging with another part of yourself.
- The sensation that the act of learning is the universe discovering itself and so extremely important this it is accompanied by pleasurable full body mind orgasms and frissons.
- The immediate interpretation of music, films and art as messages which are sent to you through the universe as a whole.
- A perspective which feels personally responsible for the entirety of histories human suffering, as well as every single human act of love and technological achievement which our species has committed onto itself.
- The obviousness of monogamy as a culturally bound tradition which stems from a combination of the ego’s sense of separateness from others and its deep psychological insecurities.
- A perspective which feels as if death can finally be accepted. This is because it is no longer felt to be the destruction of the self but simply the end of this specific point of conscious awareness which will continue to live on through everything else which it resides in.
This is a component which can either be felt as a temporary sensation that disappears as the tripper sobers up or it can become integrated into a new perspective of the world for weeks, months or years after the experience itself.
It is seemingly completely spontaneous in its rate of occurrence but seems to be particularly common during states of level 7B visual geometry when the tripper is by themselves. It also seems to occur when deep introspection results in the tripper truly resolving and coming to terms with each of their specific sets of insecurities in a way that has allowed them to become finally acceptant and content with who they are as a person.
In terms of the specific substances which are capable of inducing this component, the list currently confirms that it is possible within,
Psilocin, 4-AcO-DMT, DMT, LSD, MDMA, Ketamine, DXM and Salvia divinorum.
Similar notions of unity and the illusory nature of the self seem to be discussed heavily throughout a huge variety of religious, philosophical and psychological sources, which have been produced across both modern and ancient human history. Each of these exist independently from the experience of hallucinogenic substances. I have done my best to collect and list all of these below:
- The Buddhist phrase of anatta, which can be read about in detail here, specifically refers to the concept of “no-self”. This is the teaching that all things perceived by the senses (including the mental sense of thought) are not really “I” or “mine”, and for this reason one should not cling to them.
- Monism which can be read about in detail here, is a philosophical position which argues that there is only one thing, which all things are not separate from but working together within as a unified system of behaviour.
- The Hindu philosophy known as Nondualism can be read about in detail here. This is an idea which states that there is no difference between the concept of Brahman (the external environment) and Ātman (the self).
- The formally defined world view known as Interconnectedness, which can be read about in detail here, defines itself as the idea that all things are of a single underlying substance and reality, and that there is no true separation deeper than appearances.
- In psychology, egolessness, which can be read about in detail here, is an emotional state where one feels no ego (or self); of having no distinct being apart from the world around oneself. This is often described as feelings of oneness and being inextricably woven to the fabric of one’s surroundings or environment.
- In Freudian psychology, oceanic feeling which can be read about in detail here, is described as a sensation of an indissoluble bond, as of being connected with the external world in its integral form which is considered to be the source of religious energy. From this perspective, the feeling is referred to as an entirely subjective fact and is not an article of faith.
- The overview effect, which is described in detail within this documentary here, is a documented change in perspective experienced by astronauts who see the earth from above. It is described as perceiving the earth as a single unified system with which we are all a part of.
- Alan Watts, a famous philosopher spoke extensively about the illusory nature of the self. His lectures are extremely informative and can be found in full through torrents on the pirate bay and in parts within many videos across Youtube. His book “The book on the taboo of knowing who you are” is dedicated to a formal explanation of the philosophies and logic behind this perspective and can be found within the form of a free PDF here.
My personal interpretation or description of the themes within these philosophies (which may well be overly simplified or completely wrong) is that the individual and the universe cannot be logically defined as separate systems. This is because, to define a physical object of any sort in even the most basic level of detail, you must also provide an account of the way in which it physically interacts with and is completely dependent on its particular external environment. In turn, the external environment which the original object resides within cannot be fully defined without taking into account the surrounding systems which it is also contained within and so on outwards to encompass existence as a whole. This renders the self or any individual concept as something which can not logically be defined as a contained and separate system from the rest of the universe.
In the very same way that you cannot logically have up without down, left without right, something without nothing, light without dark or positive without negative. You cannot have self without other or each without all because the two concepts inter-depend and exclusively exist in an inseparable and unified relationship to each other.
This suggests to me that one is permitted to use terms such as “I”, “you”, and so on, not because they refer to an empirical and separate self, but simply because they are convenient linguistic tools for use in conversation which should not be considered as anything more than a symbolic approximation or measurement.
Regardless of the legitimacy of these theistic and philosophical perspectives which may be inherently delusional or false, feelings of becoming “one with universe” which are pervasive within human culture, is undoubtedly one of the most profoundly positive changes in perspective that a human being could possibly go through.
Assuming however that this is a rational and logically sound perspective, I am left with two alternate hypotheses in regards to why this illusion seems to be so deeply embedded into each and everyone of us.
The first of these is that it perhaps this illusion formed because it is an evolutionary advantage for the ego to feel intrinsically separate from and more significant than, the external environment as a means of ensuring the motivation for survival. This was my previous theory but upon further analysis has proven implausible. I do not see any physical route through which a drug that simply activates or deactivates receptors could change something that is hard wired into the very structure of the brain.
The second of these personal hypotheses is that the illusion of separateness does not stem from a hardware problem but a software problem. I personally believe that unity may well be the default evolutionary perspective through which human beings originally operated, but it has been suppressed through a purely cultural or more specifically, linguistic problem. This could potentially stem from the way that despite the many obvious benefits of language, it pays a price through completely reorganizing our perception of the world into a system of intrinsically separate labels that in reality, are merely glimpses of a unified whole. It’s an overcoming of this deeply embedded illusion that hallucinogens could theoretically rise above through the way in which they forcibly induce embedded and otherwise hidden states of mind that exist within the subconscious.
If myself and the psychedelic community as a whole dedicate themselves to coming to a total understanding of this important component, the potential consequences could have historical significance. Were the subtle environmental triggers to be accurately determined, it would be theoretically possible to consistently induce permanent and all encompassing states of unity and interconnectedness in a clinical setting. This would provide the entirety of the human species to a total freedom from our psychological, unnecessary and purely ego driven suffering which consumes our entire perspective of the world.
If you have had any experience with this component whatsoever please do report this in the comment section below and the drug which it occurred on. This provides myself and everybody else with extremely valuable data and would be greatly appreciated.
25I-NBOMe, broken down and described
Total : 6 - 10 hrs
Onset : 15 - 120 mins
Plateau : 2 - 4 hrs
Coming Down : 1 - 4 hrs
Threshold : 50 - 250 ug (micrograms)
Light : 200 - 600 ug
Common : 500 - 800 ug
Strong : 700 - 1500 ug
25I-NBOMe or 2C-I-NBOMe is a serotonergic N-benzyl derivative of the substituted phenethylamine psychedelic known as 2C-I.
It has nearly no history of human use prior to 2010 when it first became popular due its ease of purchase from online research chemical vendors.
25I-NBOMe was discovered in 2003 by Ralf Heim at the Free University of Berlin, it differs from 2C-I structurally through a substitution on the amine (NH2) with a 2-methoxybenzyl (BOMe) group as shown in the image above. This change in structure results in a sixteen fold increase in potency when compared to 2C-I, allowing even the most extreme of dosages to fit in liquid form onto tabs and blotter paper which people often mistake for LSD.
There are, however, methods of differentiating between LSD and adulterants like 25I-NBOMe with and without test kits.
For example, one of the key differences between 25I-NBOMe and LSD is that this substance is only active when taken through a sublingual or insufflated route. This means that in order to get the full effects, 25I-NBOMe blotter paper must be lightly chewed on within the mouth for 10 - 20 minutes and never immediately swallowed.
Insufflation however is not recommended due to the amount of people who have suffered through dangerous and often fatal overdoses thanks to this route of administration.
25I-NBOMe is pharmacologically unique when compared to other psychedelics through the way in which it is one of the only full agonists for the human 5ht2a receptor in existence. In comparison, classical psychedelics such as LSD, DMT and Psilocin can only be considered partial agonists. This difference in receptor affinity results in an unusual and qualitatively different trip which is broken down and described below…
Assuming the substance has been taken sublingually, the very first physical effect which a person will notice immediately after sublingual absorption is a strong, unpleasant metallic chemical taste. This is accompanied by a very obvious feeling of general numbness of the tongue and mouth which can stay for up to an hour after the blotter paper has been consumed.
This is the key difference when it comes to determining whether your blotter paper contains LSD or 25I-NBOMe.
As the tripper begins to come up, nausea is not uncommon and can sometimes result in initial vomiting but passes once this has happened or the trip begins to fully set in. However, in comparison to other psychedelics such as Psilocin, LSD, 2C-E and 2C-I this could actually be very considered very mild in intensity.
For most people this substance induces a unique type of physical stimulation which can be described as feeling extremely energetic but in a way which does not force the tripper to move unless they genuinely choose to. This is a very different experience when compared to other stimulating psychedelics such as AMT, MDMA and the 2Cx family which at high doses, will leave a person uncontrollably shaking and vibrating should they attempt to ignore the stimulation and sit still.
For a certain percentage of people however the stimulation can be quite uncontrollable, occasionally resulting in bodily shakes and a grinding of the teeth comparable to that of MDMA and traditional stimulants such as Amphetamine. This cannot be prevented but made very comfortable and quite bearable with the addition of chewing gum.
The body high itself can be described as a generally mild, all encompassing soft but euphoric tingling sensation. This tingling sensation is also accompanied by spontaneous rushes of euphoria that become longer and more drawn out proportional to the dosage consumed.
In terms of the body’s perceived weight, this substance consistently leaves people feeling extremely light, often to the point of total weightlessness.
This is commonly accompanied by strong feelings of physical autonomy and a sense of disconnection from the body which makes it feel as if the body is not your own and partially or completely moving under its own accord.
Along side this; there is also a mild reduction in a person’s ability to use fine and gross motor control, making it difficult to perform physical tasks. However, in comparison to other psychedelics such as Psilocin, LSD and 2C-I this could actually be very considered very mild and relatively functional.
It is worth noting that an undetermined percentage of people who experiment with this drug will experience negative physical side effects such as a temporary difficulty in urinating and vasoconstriction. This is defined as the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels and is triggered through the way in which 25I-NBOMe’s target receptor (5ht2a) modulates both vasoconstriction and vasodilation among its many other functions.
Physically speaking, this can become very uncomfortable but can be considered as safe at sensible dosages. The sensation itself can be described as feelings of tightness and mild to distinct stinging sensations within the arms, legs and neck.
The head space of 25I-NBOMe is remarkably light and underwhelming in comparison to classical psychedelics such as LSD, Psilocin and 2C-I.
An extremely unique aspect of this trip is the way in which most people report feeling almost completely sober even throughout visually intense experiences in terms of their cognitive abilities, with no noticeable change in the specific style of their current thought stream.
At other points however, waves of mild to overwhelming cognitive alterations are certainly present. These waves of cognitive alterations become longer and more drawn out proportional to the dosage consumed. They have so far been confirmed to include,
emotional euphoria, introspection, an enhancement of current mind state, an acceleration of thought, an increased connectivity of thought, time dilation, feelings of deja-vu, the removal of our cultural filter, the emancipation of our internal narrative from the limitations of exclusively linguistic content, induced mindfulness, introspection, induced spiritual or religious perspectives, ego suppression, ego loss and ego death.
There are also mild to powerful but inconsistently manifested entactogenic effects for people who try this substance. This results in increased feelings of love and empathy towards friends and partners in way that therapeutically builds relationships and solves interpersonal problems. These effects do not seem to be quite as strong or profound as those found within other entactogens such as MDMA, AMT and 2CB but are still certainly present and very noticeable.
The visual effects of 25I-NBOMe are extremely diverse and significantly more complex than 2C-I, with a style to them which could be considered to be similar in appearance and behaviour to that of a typical LSD trip.
In terms of visual enhancements, 25I-NBOMe presents a full and complete array of effects with increased visual acuity, enhancement of colours and an increased sense of pattern recognition all displaying themselves in a level of detail on par with any of the classical psychedelics.
As for visual distortions and alterations,
Visual drifting (melting, breathing, warping and flowing) displays a complete smoothness and high level of detail in its appearance that is far beyond the comparatively embarrassing simplicity and low frame rates of equivalent visual effects found under the influence of the close structural relative of this substance known as 2C-I.
Tracers are reported by many to be much more powerful and colourful in proportion to the visual intensity of the trip when compared to substances such as LSD, Psilocin and 2C-I. This stems from the way in which they are capable of reaching opaque level 3 tracers and trails throughout even the lightest of experiences.
Texture repetition is also present alongside this but does not reach the same level of complexity found within classical psychedelics such as LSD and Psilocin.
Colour shifting and depth perception distortions are present but do not seem to differentiate themselves in stylistic appearance from that of any other psychedelics.
Scenery slicing is so far unconfirmed but entirely possible.
The visual geometry that is present throughout this trip is extremely similar in appearance to that of LSD.
As these geometric forms stand for themselves in terms of stylistic appearance they can be comprehensively described as algorithmic in geometric style, intricate in complexity, fine and zoomed out in detail, fast and smooth in motion, structured in shape, colourful in scheme, glossy in colour, sharp around the edges and motly rounded across their corners.
In comparison to other more commonly used psychedelics they can be described as significantly more intricate than the visual geometry found within 2C-I and most of the 2Cx family in general as well as completely on par with LSD, Psilocin and DMT.
In terms of their behaviour, 25I-NBOMe’s psychedelic geometry leads onto level 7A visual geometry with level 7B remaining so far unconfirmed within this substance. They also seem to consistently build up in visual intensity when the tripper stares at a central point. This eventually envelops the visual field and creates the sensation that the tripper has broken through into a continuously shifting geometric landscape or structure with a vast sense of immersive physical size attributed to it.
In terms of hallucinatory states with 25I-NBOMe, this substance seems to be extremely lacking in defined imagery, autonomous entity contact, imagined landscapes, concepts and scenarios. However, transformations within the external environment which partially follow the content of your internal narrative are consistently present.
The auditory effects of 25I-NBOME are particularly high in comparison to that of LSD, DMT and Psilocin.
They are most commonly manifested in two distinct forms,
The first of these is a loss of audio filtering which is on par with that of any of the classical psychedelics resulting in an extremely sense of music appreciation.
The second of these two effects are auditory hallucinations, these generally regard random audial concepts such as music, voices and sounds throughout the duration of the trip.
To a lesser extent, auditory distortions and thought stream relevant sound effects such as phasers and other noises are also present.
Health effects, addiction potential and tolerance:
25I-NBOMe is a very new substance, and little is known about its pharmacological or behavioural risks. The LD50 is not known. Some deaths have been attributed to 25I-NBOMe overdose caused by improper handling and uneducated use of this substance. Its recent widespread use suggests that death is primarily caused from overdoses and not from ordinary doses, particularly from insufflation.
The fact that 25I-NBOMe is active in the microgram range is likely a contributing factor since this makes measuring doses significantly more difficult.
It’s worth noting that although many 5-HT2A agonists have documented safety, none of these have been full agonists so their safety data can not be applied to 25I-NBOMe.
In terms of its addictive potential, 25I-NBOMe has not been studied formally but due to its immediate tolerance build up which lasts up to 2 - 3 weeks after the experience, it is essentially impossible to use this substance compulsively.
- 25I-NBOMe is unscheduled under United States federal law. However, it could possibly be considered an analog of 2C-I (a Schedule I controlled substance) under the Federal Analogue Act. In this case, sale or possession of 25I-NBOMe with the intent of human consumption would be illegal.
- Virginia, Louisiana, and Florida have specifically scheduled 25I-NBOMe as a Schedule I controlled substance.
- All NBOMe substituted phenethylamines are controlled in Russia.
Every where else in the world however, 25I-NBOMe is completely unscheduled and freely available to anybody with an internet connection. If you wish to obtain this substance despite the risks involved you can literally type “buy 25I-NBOMe” into google and find several legitimate vendors on the very first page.
Please keep in mind however that 25I-NBOMe is NOT being sold by anybody specifically for the purposes human consumption as this would be genuinely illegal within most if not all countries.
In conclusion, 25I-NBOMe is an extremely interesting psychedelic but does not quite compare in terms of visual and cognitive depth if you have access to classical psychedelics such as genuine LSD, DMT and Psilocin.
I will not be seeking this substance out again but experimenting with it has certainly been an interesting and enjoyable experience.
Please go ahead and let me know if you agree or disagree with any particular points contained within this article by using the comment system below.
Previously undocumented component : The emancipation of our internal narrative from the limitations of exclusively linguistic content
This article is dedicated to providing a detailed description for one of four previously undocumented cognitive components of the psychedelic experience which I am currently in the process of writing up. I have experienced this component throughout every single one of my countless trips over the past 3 years. Despite this however, it has taken me 2 and half years to develop a vocabulary which was capable of even noticing its presence, several months to formulate a description which could be considered comprehensive in my own eyes and even longer to pin down a suitable title for that which has never before been named.
This specific component is not a high level effect and can generally be felt along side and above level 1 – 3 psychedelic geometry. It is extremely common and could be described as universal, occurring at varying levels under the influence of almost every psychedelic compound known to man.
So far this list confirms through myself and others to include but certainly not remain limited to,
Psilocin, Psilocybin, Psilacetin, Mescaline, DMT, Ayahuasca, LSD, LSA, AMT, Harmine, 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-I, 2C-P, and 5-MeO-DMT.
The emancipation of our internal narrative from the limitations of exclusively linguistic content can be described as a forced change in perspective which frees the ego’s conscious thought stream from remaining strictly limited to words and labels. This allows it to think not just in descriptions, but directly in the internally stored concepts that lay behind our linguistic and descriptive knowledge base.
In terms of how this feels experientially, it can be described as the sensation of the concepts behind the words of our internal narrative becoming somehow cognitively felt at every point across themselves in a very high level of detail. Along side this they are also perceived through a simultaneous partially to fully animated visual manifestation that differs from that of an ordinary hallucination through the fact that it exclusively occurs within the minds eye, always remaining completely separate from the trippers direct line of sight.
The experience of directly experiencing the internally stored concepts which lay just behind human description results in the perceived ability of being able to clearly feel in a profound and emotionally intuitive format, the precise consequences, limitations and position within this universe of any singular concept. These feelings are consistently interpreted as a “higher level of understanding” which seems to stem from the way in which this perspective reveals human language to be intrinsically self limited. This intrinsic self limitation is shown by integrating previously held knowledge into a persons felt perspective, transcending our intellectually understood knowledge and showing that words can only act as mere shortcuts to the concepts which they exist to describe.
At lower levels, these integrations of previously held knowledge into the trippers felt perspective can be described as thought stream specific. This means that the concepts which are being felt and seen are exclusively relevant to the words which you are currently thinking. These will feel identical in stylistic behavior whether the concept is arrived at by a simple wandering of thoughts or triggered through the experience of a concept or object perceived within the external environment.
Perhaps the most common example of this which those within the psychedelic community could relate to would be the experience of looking at a plant of any sort and internally feeling as well as visually perceiving, everything that you happen to know about photosynthesis and the evolution of plants no matter how vague or abstract this knowledge might be.
At higher levels, these integrations of previously held knowledge into the trippers felt perspective stop being specific to the words contained within your current thought stream and start becoming all encompassing towards every last internally stored piece of knowledge the tripper has ever known.
This leads onto feelings which are consistently interpreted as a new found level of “total and complete understanding” as the consequences, limitations and position within this universe of every single concept which the tripper previously only knew in terms of its description, becomes felt through a very real and undeniable perspective.
Perhaps the most common examples of these which those within the psychedelic community will relate to, that I have experienced myself and observed through others, would be the experience of a total and profound understanding regarding but not limited to, the themes and archetypes listed below.
- General scientific principles.
- Taking care of your personal health.
- Your position within nature and higher systems of order.
- The consequences of your actions and your responsibility towards them.
- Human civilization as the literal cutting edge of physical complexity.
- Living in balance with nature to the best of your abilities.
- The inevitability of death.
- The sheer unlikeliness of personal existence.
It’s through the direct experience of the concepts behind our knowledge that new life changing perspectives are suddenly felt in an obvious way. These new found viewpoints are rarely considered by the tripper to be the creation of a single new idea or creative insight. Instead they are nothing more than the integration of previously held knowledge which was already understood intellectually into a new fou them in an undeniable, clearly understandable and emotionally felt format which lies within a level of detail far beyond normal human language and description.
At lower levels, these integrations of knowledge are felt to be temporary and consistently subside along with the effects of the substance which has been consumed.
At higher levels however, specific or all encompassing pieces of knowledge can become permanently integrated into a trippers felt perspective for weeks, months, years and even a lifetime after the experience itself. If the knowledge integration has been specific it will likely consist of things which have been only recently learnt or discovered in the preceding days or perhaps weeks before the trip.
This component allows psychedelic users to gain access to a profound and very literal expansion of their consciousness, resulting in extremely therapeutic changes in their perception of the world.
It’s worth noting however that many people including myself have reported that they can experience low level versions of this component when simply high on marijuana.
Personal experience has led me to confirm that this state can even be triggered throughout every day life in temporary, thought stream specific forms through mindful meditation sessions. I have yet to write anything regarding my knowledge behind meditation but intend to at some point in the future and will tie the relevant parts of it directly into this component.
If you have had any experience with this component whatsoever please do report this in the comment section below and the drug or mind state which it occurred on. This provides myself and everybody else with extremely valuable data and would be greatly appreciated.
Defining formal guidelines for documenting the subjective effects of hallucinogens
I am writing this article to define the exact analytical processes that I run through when breaking down and describing the subjective effects of any specific substance. This is because I consistently receive messages on a regular basis from people who seem to be genuinely astonished that I can seemingly describe “the impossible” in a clear and understandable format. This is despite the fact that many of the people who send me these messages seem to be vastly better spoken as well as considerably more intelligent and educated than I will ever be. Something which has led me to the conclusion that it has almost nothing to do with a person’s intelligence, use of language or background because at this point, I am simply well practised and nothing more. This is because over the last two years I have gradually and unconsciously developed a technique which can be applied to literally any substance in existence for the purposes of documenting their subjective effects in a formal and understandable manner.
It’s here in this article that I will explain in detail every single variable and piece of information that needs to be analyzed and questioned when a person is breaking down, for the first time, the experience of a previously undocumented hallucinogen. It will serve as an organized index of hallucinogenic effects and also provide people with guidelines on the pre-existing knowledge and experience they should have as well as general tips regarding the easiest and most convenient ways to record accurate data in the correct setting with minimal amounts of external influence.
I am doing this for two reasons, to better define the process for myself and so that if I die in some sort of horrible accident tomorrow, the project can continue regardless.
It’s important to note that before anybody is capable of accurately documenting the subjective effects of any class of specific hallucinogen, they need to have a good understanding of what they are getting into. There are two equally important methods behind this that are both necessary to ensure the tripper is not overwhelmed with disorientation and that they have the appropriate vocabulary to describe very specific details regarding the experience.
The first of these is to study and understand in as much detail as possible, the exact effects which their chosen class of hallucinogen is going to induce. This can be done by thoroughly reading through and studying the pre-existing guides which I have already written for psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants. If this is done, it will ensure that you are completely familiar with the names, descriptions and preset terminologies’ regarding each and every specific effect that you are likely to come across. This will equip you with the appropriate vocabulary to understand and describe the experience which you are currently going through in a level of detail which would be otherwise impossible. It will also guarantee that others can understand your writings, because knowledge of the preset terminologies and names will mean that your use of language should be consistent with how other people would describe the same experience.
The second of these methods is to ensure that you not only understand what you are getting into but are completely familiar with it. This should be done by ensuring that you have had prior in-depth experience with at least one class of hallucinogen to the point where you can remain calm and aware of the current situation throughout the entirety of the experience with minimal confusion. This is completely necessary because without prior experience you will not be able to accurately describe the effects to others and will simply become overwhelmed with the disorienting intensity of the trip instead. So, if you are not already familiar with the class of hallucinogen which the specific substance resides in, you can do so by simply experimenting with it. Starting with low threshold dosages and working your way up in small increments as you feel comfortable, until you feel that you are completely familiar the substance. If you want to be truly familiar and experienced, the goal should be to become capable of comfortably withstanding the specific style of ego loss and eventually ego death which the substance you are experimenting with has to offer. This could take anywhere from 3 to 50 separate trips and is completely dependant on the individual but it is extremely important to note that nothing should be rushed and the user should only increase their dosage as they feel comfortable.
Finally, although this is not 100% necessary, it’s worth noting that if you are categorizing the effects of specific psychedelics it can be extremely helpful to do this not just as they stand for themselves but in comparison to other more commonly used psychedelics such as LSD or Psilocin (Mushrooms / 4-aco-dmt). These are the two substances which I write every specific substance guide in relation to simply because they are the two most widely used psychedelics in existence and writing about substances in relation to them provides a significantly clearer picture to potential users.
First and foremost, the most important thing to understand when you are documenting the effects of hallucinogens is to understand exactly what you should and shouldn’t be recording. The goal of categorizing and documenting the subjective effects of hallucinogens is to describe in an easy to understand, empirical and objective manner the very specific effects which these hallucinogens induce across all people. This should be done in a way that uses clear, rational language that does not depend on metaphor or analogy. It is not a trip report and therefore does not include personal experiences but should concentrate exclusively on the universally experienced effects.
The easiest and most efficient way to ensure accurate documentation of the subjective effects of any hallucinogen is to record your experience through audio or video as it is happening or having a close friend write down everything which is being said. This should ensure that you do not become a victim to drug induced amnesia and simply forget the experience immediately after it has happened.
A close friend who is equally as knowledgeable, experienced and familiar with these states as the tripper should be there to facilitate the experience by interviewing them in as much detail as possible. They should do this by ensuring that they are comfortable and by actively encouraging the tripper to describe the effects, ensuring that each and every relevant comment which they make is recorded.
In the section below I am going to provide every one of the differing variables between the various categories of sensation which are experienced throughout every specific hallucinogen. To determine and comprehensively document the exact nature of the drug which you are using, simply study the information below and use it as a check list which allows you to choose and note down the specific components and sub-components which most accurately fit and describe the exact experience you are currently going through.
Be sure to not only note their presence and how often they occur, but to comment on their level of intensity in relation to the current level of visual effects and experience. It’s also important to note that many of the subcomponents below can only be described in relation to their opposites. This means that a large portion of the sensations are usually lying somewhere between the two conflicting extremes but can also be felt as a mixture of the two. If they are felt as a mixture of the two, be sure to note down whether these conflicting effects occur simultaneously or if they alternate between the two in an either spontaneous or consistent rhythm.
Potential Physical effects:
Increase in pre-existing tactile sensations,
This can be described as a mild - extreme increases in a persons awareness of the nerve endings across the body.
This can result in an the pleasure derived from tactile sensations such as touching, hugging, kissing and sex becoming greatly enhanced, or it can result in an oversensitivity of the skin which causes the same sensations to become overwhelming and uncomfortable.
Effects such as these are a near universal experience with psychedelics but seemingly non existent and unconfirmed for both dissociatives and deliriants.
Decrease in Pre-Existing Tactile Sensations,
This can be described as sensations of Physical Anaesthesia and a simple lack of sensation and general numbness across the body. It eventually increases until nothing is felt and the body is completely anaesthetized.
This effect is universally present throughout dissociative experiences but currently unconfirmed with pyschedelics and deliriants.
Spontaneous Tactile Sensations (body high),
The differences between each differing style of body high can be broken five basic opposites of sensation.
- Moving vs. Motionless – Feelings of tingling nerve endings will either fluidly move themselves up and down various parts of the body in spontaneous directions or they will remain still and consistent in their position.
- Constant vs. Spontaneous – Feelings of tactile noise will either be constantly present throughout a significant portion of the trip or they will spontaneously and temporarily manifest themselves at random points for differing durations of time.
- Sharp vs. Soft – Feelings of tingling nerve endings will either be perceived to feel soft, warm and gentle on the skin or sharp and cold.
- All encompassing vs. Location specific - Feelings of tactile noise can either be felt across every square inch of the skin or in very specific locations such as the ends of the fingers and toes, up and down the spinal column or across/ within the head.
- Euphoric vs. Dysphoric – At appropriately high dosages, feelings of tactile noise and tingling nerve endings can either be interpreted as immensely and overwhelmingly pleasurable or they can go in the opposite direction and become extremely uncomfortable.
- Tactile hallucinations – This particular subcomponent of hallucinogen induced spontaneous tactile sensations is unique in that it behaves differently and feels as if it is generated by a different neurological mechanism entirely. Instead of differing styles of euphoric tingling sensations, these manifest themselves as hallucinations which occur across the skin. They are best described as feelings of physical things such as people or insects touching the body and in various places in a wide variety of ways. In addition these hallucinations can be felt as complex and structured arrangements of vibration across the skin.
The above effects are a universal experience with psychedelics and a common experience with dissociatives and deliriants.
Changes in energy levels,
A persons energy levels can be changed in a way that is either interpreted as physically stimulating and encouraging when it comes to movement or physically sedating and discouraging through sensations of bodily calmness and relaxation.
Changes in Physical Perception,
This can be described as not a change in the amount of tactile sensation that is received from the physical body but a change in the way in which our body is perceived. It can be manifested in three differing styles.
- Increase vs. Decrease in weight – Feelings of a change in physical perception can manifest itself as feelings of the body becoming extremely heavy and difficult or sometimes impossible to move, resulting in feelings of slowness and sluggishness. In contrast however, feelings of the body becoming extremely light and easy to move are also possible, resulting in feelings of increased energy and a general sense of bounciness.
- Increase vs. Decrease in size – Feelings of a change in physical perception can manifest itself as feelings of the body becoming moderately to infinitely larger in size. In contrast, the perceived size of the body can decrease and become anywhere from moderately to infinitely smaller in size.
This effect is extremely common on dissociatives, possible on psychedelics and specifically on amanita muscaria but is so far unconfirmed for deliriants.
- Changes in the direction and intensity of gravity – Feelings of gravity changing in its direction and intensity are most common throughout high level experiences on certain hallucinogens. For example, feeling as if you are flying forwards, backwards, upwards, downwards, in multiple directions at once or in a singular direction that doesn’t make sense are extremely common throughout dissociatives, Salvia divinorum and high dose psychedelics such as DMT and Ayahuasca.
- Shifts in felt bodily form - Feelings of a change in physical perception can manifest itself as feelings of the body shifting in its perceived physical form without any visual alterations. For example, feelings of the body folding into itself many times over as well as stretching, expanding and condensing into, over and across itself in extremely complex ways are entirely possible.
This effect has only been confirmed to exist within dissociatives and remains unconfirmed for psychedelics and deliriants.
Changes in motor control,
This can be described as a simple increase or decrease in a person’s gross and fine motor control which can be defined as a persons ability to perform physical tasks such as walking, balancing, crawling, running, house hold tasks, instrument playing, writing, spliff rolling, etc.
Depending on the substance consumed, motor control can either decrease or increase throughout the experience. If it is decreased a general loss of balance and difficulty performing physical actions combined with unsteady and shaky hands will either partially or completely prevent the tripper from moving. If it is increased however, a greater sense of physical connection to the body will manifest itself, resulting in a newfound ability to accurately control every single muscle across the entire body with the tiniest of precise mental triggers and leading onto feelings of nimbleness and a sense of ease when performing any physical action.
Another direction in which a person’s motor control can be altered into is a sense of physical autonomy. This can be described as movement not necessarily becoming any easier or more difficult but completely automatic in its processes, creating the sensation that the body is performing the actions which you wish it to act out on its own accord.
Negative side effects,
Although most hallucinogens are a safe and generally a physically comfortable experience for the prepared, there are still certain hallucinogens that can come with a range of negative side effects which happen throughout the experience, immediately after it once the substance has worn off or both and it is important to note the specific part of the trip which these effects are felt.
Negative side effects, “come downs” or “hangovers”, are just as important to document as the positive effects. There are a number of negative side effects and I have tried to list as many of them as possible below.
- Nausea and/ or vomiting.
- Head aches.
- Jaw clenching.
- Bodily aches and throbbing.
- Frequent urination.
- Difficulty urinating.
- Sensitivity to sunlight.
- Serotonin depletion.
- Loss of coordination.
- Dry mouth and dehydration (sometimes to the point where it becomes impossible to swallow).
- Excessive sweating.
- Difficulty regulating body temperature.
- Abnormal heart beat.
- Temporary Erectile Dysfunction.
- Muscle cramps.
Some of these side effects (particularly nausea and vomiting) may not be a result of the drug itself but the way in which it has been consumed and potential contaminants which may have been ingested with it. If you are documenting the subjective effects of any hallucinogen, be sure to differentiate between the two potential causes of any negative side effects which may occur.
Potential Cognitive effects:
In this section I am going to break down and organize each and every one of the differing variables and subcategories of effects between the various cognitive sensations and alterations in thought processes which are experienced throughout every specific hallucinogen.
Enhancement of pre-existing mind state and thought processes,
This can be described as profound and exponential enhancements of a person’s current emotional state and perspective on the world. Alongside this enhancement of current mind state there are alterations and enhancements of thoughts that allow people to look at them selves and the world around them with levels of mental insight so far beyond sober living that they are often capable of having life changing consequences. These enhancements and alterations of thought patterns can be broken down into 5 basic categories.
- Acceleration of thought - This can be described as the mental process of thought being sped up significantly resulting in an abundance of new and insightful ideas.
- Increased connectedness of thought - This can be described as thought patterns becoming characterized by a powerful and fluid association of ideas with extremely wandering thoughts that are highly interconnected, resulting in the removal of any creative block as the thoughts begin to flow free.
- Increased empathy and sociability – Many hallucinogens possess what are referred to in the scientific literature as “entactogenic” or “empathogenic” effects. An entactogen or empathogen is a specific class of substance which share an ability to produce intense feelings of empathy, love, and emotional closeness to others. Many psychedelics such as 2C-B, 2C-E, 2C-I, MDA, AMT, 2C-T-7, and 2C-T-2 possess entactogenic effects and certain entactogens such as MDMA are capable of producing psychedelic effects. These can be described as general feelings of,
- Increased sociability and feelings of communication being easy or simple.
- Increased urge to communicate with others.
- Increased empathy and feelings of closeness or connection with others.
- Reduced insecurity, defensiveness, and fear of emotional injury.
These very therapeutic and mentally beneficial changes are triggered by what feels like a complete breakdown of each and every one of our inbuilt cultural and social boundaries that we have all been raised into. Allowing people to truly express their emotions and understand the perspectives of other people whilst still maintaining full control over their actions.
Suppression of pre-existing mind state and thought processes,
This is the opposite of mental enhancement and can be described as an overall suppression of mental insight and normally functioning analytical abilities. It can be broken down into 5 different simplistic subcategories of thought suppression.
- Thought deceleration – This can be described as a person’s thought stream remaining identical in its capability to reason and process information but simply becoming much slower in its ability to do so.
- Suppression of emotion – This can be described as a person’s current emotional state being suppressed and simply blocked out regardless of it being either positive or negative.
- Suppression of information processing – This can be described as a partial to complete suppression of a person’s ability to process information and logically analyse a situation in an understandable and linear fashion. This is something which can result in irrational behaviour, delirium and an inability to understand or speak in normal language.
- Suppression of memory formation (amnesia) – This can be described as the experience of large periods of time throughout the trip becoming partially or completely impossible to recall after the tripper has sobered up in the exact same fashion that our dreams are often extremely difficult to remember.
- Suppression of cultural filter – This can be briefly described as a partial to complete removal of our cultural filter. This is a psychological filter which exists within human beings and gives us a powerfully consistent, unconscious tendency to notice and assign significance to observations that confirm existing cultural beliefs, while filtering out and rationalizing observations that do not fit with prior beliefs and expectations.
This seems to occur on many psychedelics including LSD, Psilocin, DMT and Mescaline but is so far unconfirmed throughout other hallucinogens such as the 2C-X family, dissociatives and deliriants.
- Ego suppression, loss and death - Put simply, the ego is a human being’s sense of self or “I” as intrinsically separate from and somehow more important than the external environment. Every class of hallucinogens reduce and diminishes the trippers ego proportional to the dosage consumed, meaning that as dosage increases the ego goes down with it. This is a process that can be broken down into 3 basic levels.
- Ego suppression - Partial failure of a person’s short term memory resulting in a loss of focus and increased distractibility.
- Ego loss - Complete failure of a person’s short term memory resulting in a complete inability to keep track of the present situation.
- Ego death - Complete failure of a person’s long term memory resulting in an inability to remember any basic fundamental human concept including any sense of what the “I” even is.
Depending on the hallucinogen that has been consumed, the ego will be inhibited at different levels in relation to the visual intensity of the trip. For example, Ayahuasca and DMT will remain at level 1 ego suppression throughout level 5 visual experiences. In comparison, psychedelics such as LSD or Psilocin will set themselves at level 2 or 3 ego loss / death at identical levels of visual intensity. With other substances such as Salvia Divinorum however, level 2 ego loss can occur even at extremely mild levels of visual intensity. It is extremely important to note how proportional the inhibition of a person’s ego is in comparison to the visual intensity of the trip when documenting the subjective effects of any specific hallucinogen.
Inducement of previously non-existent mind states,
This can be described as triggered states of mind that are induced regardless of a persons state of mind prior to ingesting the drug.
- Euphoria vs. Dysphoria – When hallucinogens have an effect on emotion they can either induce states of positive mental euphoria that can be described as mild to overwhelming states of forced happiness, often resulting in uncontrollable smiling and laughter. In contrast to this they can also induce states of mental dysphoria which can be described as mild to extreme feelings of depression, fear and paranoia.
- States of Introspection - This can be described as overpowering levels of thought that consistently direct themselves towards an unbiased analysis of the self and ones actions, leading people to profoundly therapeutic and mentally beneficial changes in their perspective on themselves and the world around them.
- States of Outrospection - This can be described as overpowering levels of thought that consistently direct themselves towards an unbiased and extremely insightful analysis of the external, leading towards a forced contemplation of subjects which regard the “bigger picture” such as life, reality, the past, the future, the universe, our place within it and higher systems of order.
These effects have been confirmed to exist within all of the classical psychedelics and are possible with dissociative experiences but unconfirmed with deliriants.
- States of profundity, awe and reverence - This can be described as mild - overwhelming feelings of fascination and awe attributed to the external environment and everything within it. It can be described as a new found and deeply emotional childlike sense of wonder. Giving the impression that everything is profound and important, be it the universe, nature, life or everyday household objects.
This effect has been confirmed to exist on most of the classical psychedelics such as LSD, Psilocin, DMT, Ayahuasca and Mescaline but is so far unconfirmed across the 2Cx family, dissociatives and deliriants.
- States of unity and interconnectedness - In terms of how this state subjectively feels it can be generally described as a loss of perceived boundaries between the physical body and the external environment, giving the profound sensation that your central centre of self is no longer confined to the ego but attributed to everything within the external environment and ultimately the entire universe. It can be a temporary experience or it can be a permanent change in perception which lasts a life time after the trip. So far it has been confirmed to exist within LSD, psilocin and 4-aco-dmt but is almost certainly waiting to be documented within other substances.
- Sexual arousal – Although any hallucinogen which includes the physical component of a positive enhancement of tactile sensation will directly increase the amount of pleasure derived from sexual contact if it is forcibly engaged in. Certain hallucinogens such as the 2C-X family will consistently cause people to look at everything around them in a powerfully sexual context regardless of social setting.
This is an effect that occurs in two different forms and makes the passage of time difficult to keep track of and wildly distorted.
The first and most common of these effects is time deceleration and can be described as the feeling that time has completely slowed down. At its highest level this can increase until the passage of time stops completely.
The second form is known as time acceleration and can be described as the experience of time speeding up and passing much quicker than it generally should.
In this section I am going to break down and organize each and every one of the differing variables between the various visual enhancements, effects and alterations which are experienced throughout every specific hallucinogen.
Enhancement of Vision,
This can be described as an overall increase in the level of visual input attributed to the external environment that a person experiences and is manifested in a couple of different ways.
- Enhanced visual acuity - A sharp increase in visual acuity which can be described as a new found ability to comprehend the entire visual field at once, including the peripheral vision. This results in the level of visual detail attributed to external the environment heightening to the point where the edges of objects become extremely well defined.
- Enhanced colour perception – This can be described as colours becoming indescribably bright and vivid. Reds will seem “Redder”, Greens will seem “Greener” and all colours will be become much more distinct, powerful and intense than they usually are.
- Enhanced pattern recognition – This can be described as people suddenly noticing patterns and textures that they may have never previously appreciated or paid any attention to before. For example when looking at a carpet, a pavement or tree barks the complexity and beauty of the texture suddenly becomes obvious.
The above components are a universal experience on psychedelic substances but non existent with dissociatives and deliriants.
Suppression of vision,
This can be described as an overall increase in the level of visual input attributed to the external environment that a person experiences and is manifested in a total of 3 different ways.
- Decreased visual acuity – This can be described as vision becoming partially or completely blurred and indistinct.
- Double vision – This can be described as doubled vision that makes fine vision and reading essentially impossible unless the tripper closes one eye.
- Suppression of pattern recognition – This can be described as the registering of objects and concepts becoming partially to completely suppressed. Resulting in the mental process of recognizing objects and sensory input for what they are becoming slowed down or halted completely.
The above components are confirmed to exist within both dissociatives and deliriants but non existent within psychedelics.
This subcomponent can be generally described as open eye alterations and changes in perception attributed to pre-existing stimuli such as the external environment appearing to breath, melt, flow and warp. They can also present themselves as alterations in depth perception, colour shifting and tracers. All these distortions come in a variety of different styles but each of these can be broken down into a few basic subcomponents and rules which are described below.
- Visual drifting - This can be described as the experience of the objects and scenery appearing to become progressively warped and morphed across the visual field in a variety of complex ways. It’s important to note the exact level of visual drifting (1 – 4) which has occurred throughout the trip. Visual drifting may come in a huge variety of styles depending on the substance consumed. It has been confirmed as an almost universal experience throughout every psychedelic, but is unconfirmed with dissociatives and available in only mild forms on deliriants such as DPH. Each of these can be broken down into a few basic subcomponents and rules which are described below.
-Intricate vs. Simplistic – In terms of their complexity, distortions will either alter the external environment in a way that spreads out in many different directions and results in the original piece of sensory input becoming completely unrecognisable in appearance. If not, they will be simplistic in nature and stick to simple warping, wiggling and bending even at high dosages.
-Slow vs. Fast – Distortions can manifest themselves as something that progress in their visual alterations at a fast and sudden rate or gradually and slowly as a person stares into it.
-Smooth vs. Jittery – In terms of their motion, distortions can manifest themselves as a smooth and flawless transition or jittery with an extremely slow frame rate that moves in sudden and partial transitions.
- Static vs. Fleeting – In terms of their permanence, distortions will either maintain their position until the tripper double takes or will be extremely fleeting in their nature, meaning that they will reset almost as soon as a person tries to look directly at it.
-Realistic vs. Unrealistic – Distortions will either look convincing in their appearance or extremely cartoon like and unrealistic.
- Depth perception distortions - This is where the depths and distances of the scenery in front of you are swapped and reordered. A classic example of this is when objects in the background come into the foreground and objects in the foreground get pushed into the background. This effect is common throughout most psychedelics but so far unconfirmed with both dissociatives and deliriants.
- Shifting colours – This effect can be described as the colours of an object appearing to cycle through every possible colour in a looped animation. It is common throughout most psychedelics but particularly common on LSD and so far unconfirmed with dissociatives and deliriants.
- Tracers – This effect can be described as the experience of trails being left behind moving objects. It is important to note the level of visual intensity (1 – 4) which these tracers are manifested at and their colour in comparison to the moving object itself. This effect is found almost universally on every psychedelic but is so far unconfirmed with both dissociatives and deliriants.
- Texture repetition – This can be described as rough textures and patterns becoming mirrored repeatedly over its surface in an extremely intricate and symmetrical fashion that is consistent across itself. Certain hallucinogens such as LSD, Psilocin and many other psychedelics present this visual alteration as extremely complex in nature even at lower dosages where as other substances such as AMT or 2C-I will present it as simplistic and bland even at higher dosages. This effect is so far unconfirmed on both dissociatives and deliriants.
- Perspective distortions – These can be described as felt changes in perspective attributed to the external environment which can alter the size in a way that makes it seem significantly smaller or larger than it actually is, or they can alter the distance between yourself and objects / scenery to make them seem further or closer away. They are common on dissociatives, rare on psychedelics and unconfirmed with deliriants.
- Scenery slicing – This can be described as the external environment spontaneously being split and cut into sections with extremely clean edges.It differs from experience to experience in terms of how many sections the external environment is sliced into and the shape or complexity of their edges. For example a person’s field of vision could be split into 3 basic horizontal lines or a series of interwoven spirals. This visual is currently confirmed on psychedelics but rare and seemingly triggered at random. It is more common on dissociatives but still never consistently triggered and so far unconfirmed with deliriants.
This subcomponent is commonly referred to by the psychonautic community as “visuals”. They are broken into 6 distinct levels of intensity and can be described as the sensation of a person’s field of open and closed eye vision being partially or completely encompassed by fast-moving kaleidoscopic and indescribably complex geometric patterns, form constants, shapes, fractals, structures and colour. Visuals manifest themselves in a variety of different styles but each of these can be broken down into a few basic subcomponents and rules which are described below.
- Intricate vs. Simplistic – Visuals will either present themselves as incomprehensibly intricate and complex in their appearance or simplistic and comprehensible even at higher dosages.
- Algorithmic vs. Organic – In terms of their content, visuals will either appear to follow mathematical rules and logically consistent geometry, often resulting in high amounts of fractals and semi predictable shapes. This is most common on substances such as LSD and the 2C-X family.
In contrast to this, visuals can also be completely random in their geometry and appearance in a way that contains infinite amounts of completely unpredictable variety. This is most common on substances such as Psilocin and DMT.
- Structured vs. Unstructured – Visuals will either present themselves across a flat veil of geometry or they will form into an infinite variety of 3-Dimensional mechanistic rotating and ever shifting structures that are comprised out of a material based on condensed visuals.
- Colourful vs. Monotone – The colour scheme that visuals follow will range from extremely varied and multi coloured in style to consisting almost entirely of blues and greys regardless of how high the dosage may be. Below this visuals will consist of dark purples and blacks that are difficult to make out from their background.
- Flat colours vs. Glossy colours – Separate from the variety of colour contained within visual geometry, colours will either be flat and bright or glossy with high lights and shading regardless of the dosage consumed.
- Sharp edges vs. Soft edges – Visuals will either have sharp extremely well defined around their perimeter, sometimes with thick black outlines around their edges. In contrast to this, they can be soft and blurred around their edges, merging seamlessly into each other in a way that does not affect their intricacy.
- Large vs. Small – In terms of their size, visuals can be extremely large and zoomed in or fine and zoomed out in a way that does not affect their level of intricacy.
- Fast vs. Slow – Movement wise, visuals can shift and morph so fast into themselves that the amount of information presented to the tripper in extremely short periods of time becomes incomprehensible to process.
In contrast to this, they can move slowly and comprehensibly, swirling and shifting into themselves to present ever changing geometric forms that can be observed in a much higher level of detail.
- Round corners vs. Angular corners – Visuals will either have mostly rounded and circular corners or mostly sharp corners with pointed and angular geometry.
- Immersive vs. Unimmersive – Visuals can be manifested in front of your face on a field of vision that feels separate from you, as if it was beings presented on some sort of television screen or they can feel as if you are completely immersed in and surrounded by them.
Psychedelics usually generate unimmersive visuals but are capable of becoming immersive at appropriately high dosages. Dissociative visuals however seem to be strictly immersive even at mild to moderate levels of tripping.
- Level 6A vs. Level 6B – At their sixth and highest level of experience visuals are capable of branching off into two different directions of equal intensity.
The first of these is level 6A – exposure to entirety of neurological structure and the second of these is level 6B – exposure to the inner mechanics of human consciousness. So far, level 6A visuals have been confirmed this state has been confirmed to manifest itself throughout most high dose Psilocin and Mescaline trips and at least occasionally on 2C-E.
Visual geometry is present throughout every class of hallucinogen in varying levels of intensity. It is a universal experience on psychedelic substances, a common experience with dissociative experiences and an occasional experience with deliriants.
Imagery, transformations and hallucinations,
Every single category of hallucinogen is capable of producing vivid hallucinatory states at appropriately high dosages at 3 distinct levels of intensity. The upper two levels of which can be defined as the manifestation of an infinite variety of internally stored concepts in a fashion that feels almost identical to dreams. They are capable of becoming completely realistic and fully 3-Dimensional in their detail and generally consist of imagery, imagined land scapes, concepts, scenarios and contact with autonomous entities. They are presented in a number of different styles depending on the class of hallucinogen or specific substance consumed but can be broken down into a few basic rules and subcomponents of description.
- External vs. Internal – Hallucinations can be presented in two different ways. External hallucinations will manifest themselves seamlessly within the external environment as fully formed delusions. These are extremely common on deliriants but uncommon and rare on psychedelics and dissociatives.
In contrast, internal hallucinations only present themselves when the tripper has reached such a high level that they have broken through and are no longer within or aware of the external environment. This means that they have progressive levels of multiple all encompassing sensory effects, before reaching the level of concrete hallucination.
- Lucid vs. Delirious - Hallucinatory states can maintain a consistent level of awareness throughout them regarding the fact that none of these event are really happening and that the current situation is simply a result of drug induced hallucination. In contrast to this, hallucinations can also become completely believable no matter how nonsensical they may be in exactly the same way that we do not have any problem accepting absurd and non linear plots within our dreams.
- Interactive vs. Fixed – Hallucinatory states can either present themselves to you as completely separate in a manner that is similar to watching a video play out in your field of vision or they can be completely interactive. For example, conversing with autonomous entities or manually exploring landscapes in a fashion similar to a lucid dreaming is entirely possible.
- New experiences vs. Memory replays – In terms of their subject matter, hallucinations can either be entirely new experiences that are completely impossible to compare to anything previously experienced through out sober living or they can follow themes of normal every day concepts and a replaying of specific of memories.
- Controllable vs. Autonomous – Imagery and hallucinations are often partially to fully controllable, this can be described as the content of their appearance always seeming to follow and fit the general topic and subject matter of your current thought stream. This allows you to visually manifest any concept which you can possibly imagine in front of your field of vision.
In contrast, autonomous hallucinations are completely spontaneous in their subject matter and uncontrollable in every way.
Hallucinations which are controllable do not yet seem to be found within dissociatives or deliriants and can be found on occasion within any psychedelic but are more common with LSA, 2C-E, Harmine and Ayahuasca.
- Embedded vs. Separate – Hallucinations can appear as completely separate and distinct from the experience visual geometry or they can be comprised of it and embedded within it.
In this section I am going to break down and organize each and every one of the differing variables between the various sensory enhancements, effects and alterations of sound that are experienced throughout every class of hallucinogen.
This can be described as the sensation of sound becoming vastly crisper and clearer than anything felt during normal sober living and the sudden feeling of being extremely aware of all of the sounds around you, with an enhanced ability to pinpoint the exact direction from which multiple layers of noise are coming from. This often results in a greatly enhanced appreciation for music and is an effect which seems to be consistently present throughout any psychedelic experience. It is occasionally present on dissociatives but unconfirmed with deliriants.
This can be described as the sensation of sound becoming partially to completely muffled and indistinct. It is essentially unheard of with psychedelics and deliriants but extremely common throughout the classical dissociatives such as DXM, MXE, Ketamine and PCP.
This can be described as alterations of pre-existing sound, commonly manifesting itself as the experience of an echo or murmur rising in the wake of each sound, accompanied by distorted changes of pitch. These increase proportionally with dosage up until the original sound is completely unrecognisable.
They are found throughout each class of hallucinogen but are more prevalent with certain substances such as Mescaline and DiPT than others.
Audio hallucinations are essentially the heard equivalent of imagery and open eye transformations. They can be described as spontaneous imaginary noises that are either triggered at complete random or manifested in the place of noises that are subconsciously expected to happen. The most common examples of these are usually experienced as clips of recorded sound such as imagined music or voices. At their lowest level, voices and music appear to be garbled but distinct, with the voices sounding devoid of meaning and the music difficult to make out. At their highest levels however, they eventually evolve into completely coherent hallucinations such as heard conversations with spirits and autonomous entities or fully formed and completely original, extremely detailed symphonies and songs with multiple perfectly played instruments that have never been heard before.
This particular component of hallucinogen induced audial effects is almost universal on deliriants, common on psychedelics and so far unconfirmed with dissociatives.
This effect can be described as hearing an infinitely wide array of random and nonsensical sounds from within the brain. Sometimes fleeting and seemingly triggered at random but other times maintaining an internal consistency that follows and fits itself around the rhythm of a persons thought processes. Common examples of these include hearing noises such as; reverb, tones, and general sound effects. Including pitches and notes that increase in intensity the harder you concentrate. They can also be experienced in the form of sounds such as a soft purring or multiple tones and phasers, but they are essentially limitless in their possibilities in and completely rhythm-less in tune.
These are confirmed to exist on both psychedelics and dissociatives but unconfirmed with deliriants. They are most common on Nitrous Oxide, Harmine, DMT and 2C-E.
Multi Sensory effects:
In this section I am going to break down and describe the effects which exclusively occurs across multiple senses at once.
This is known as synaesthesia and is defined as a blending, merging or mixing of the senses. For example, alterations to sensory perception such as seeing music, tasting colors, hearing smells or any other possible combination of the senses are all possible. At its highest level, synaesthesia becomes so all encompassing that every one of senses becomes completely intertwined and experienced through all of the other senses. This is a complete blending of human perception and extremely profound when experienced.
It is triggered spontaneously on most of the classical psychedelics and unconfirmed with dissociatives and deliriants, seemingly more common on stimulating psychedelics such as LSD or the 2Cx family.
Dissociation and detachment,
Feelings of dissociation and detachment from the senses, the external environment and the mind are extremely common on dissociative hallucinogens. It can be broken down into 5 distinct levels of disconnection starting with feeling generally separate from the external world and eventually leading onto complete detachment and out of body experiences.
It is extremely important to note which of level of detachment (1 – 5) is present throughout the trip.
Feelings of detachment and dissociation are a universal experience throughout every dissociatives including ketamine, MXE, DXM, PCP and Nitrous as well as Salvia divinorum.
At level 3 and above, these feelings of detachment and out of body experiences are capable of triggering a specific component of the dissociative experience known as Hallucinatory structures. It is extremely important to note not just the level of visual intensity (1 – 4) which these structures are occurring at but also the methods of transition which are being used to switch between them. Hallucinatory structures usually manifest themselves in differing styles but are generally quite similar. Changing in their colour scheme, darkness, clarity and complexity depending on the substance consumed.
So far, these have been confirmed to be consistently found on dissociatives such as MXE, DXM, Ketamine and PCP as well as Salvia and potentially ibiogaine.
The above descriptions can essentially be used as a check list for documenting the subjective effects of hallucinogens. This allows people to describe and discuss any hallucinatory experience with any specific substance on a level of detail that would not be possible without the use of preset terminologies, definitions and descriptions to ensure that peoples use of language remains formally consistent and understandable across itself.
I have tried to make this as comprehensive as I possibly can but know for a fact that it cannot possibly include every single effect that hallucinogens induce, it just documents the ones which I have personally encountered, named and described so far. This means that if you are documenting the effects of any specific hallucinogen, do not limit your questioning and writings to this article. Be ready to encounter and discover effects that have never before been documented in all of history.
As time goes on it is becoming more and more obvious that hallucinogens are quite literally, uncharted territory for the human race. We are with no exaggeration, on the brink of an unexplored dimension of historical significance and infinite proportions that has existed within human beings all along. In my opinion this is the next frontier for the human race and if our nations governments are too busy being wrapped up in cultural delusion to concentrate on something besides shooting people in the desert and arresting stoners then it is down to us, the people to try and come to an understanding of these states on our own.
Even from a scientific perspective, hallucinogens are only being studied in two different contexts. The first of these is the precise effect which hallucinogens have on the brain and our neurochemistry while the second is the study of the many potential uses which hallucinogens have in therapeutic contexts. Although these are worthwhile pursuits, there does not seem to be a single formalized attempt from any organization on the planet at coming to an empirical reason based analysis regarding the subjective experiential effects which hallucinogens induce, despite the fact that this is obviously and without a doubt the single most important defining feature which they possess.
Terrence Mckenna has been quoted as saying that we will not be able to discuss or come to an understanding of the psychedelic experience until we finally map it out. This is a statement that I completely agree with, it’s developing a formalized and rational approach to this that will be the first of many steps in the important mission of promoting psychonautics from a field of mysticism, to a legitimate field of science.
Mirtazapine, broken down and described
Dosage : 200mg +
Onset : 20 - 60 minutes
Duration : 2 - 5 hours
Normal After Effects : up to 12 hours
Mirtazapine is a very common prescription antidepressant which was first introduced by Organon International in the United States in 1990. It is classed as a Noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs), acting by antagonizing the Alpha2-adrenergic receptor and certain serotonin receptors such as 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C. It has little to no history of human usage and is used primarily in the treatment of major depressive disorder and other mood disorders. It is also commonly used as a treatment for anxiety, insomnia, nausea and as an appetite stimulant. Structurally, mirtazapine is classified as a tetracyclic antidepressant (TeCA) due to its four distinctive rings.
When it is taken in large doses, it is capable of inducing bizarre experiences which are visually on par with and in the same distinct class as any of the classical psychedelics but almost completely devoid of mental insight or anything that could considered fun recreational potential.
The body high or physical sensation of a mirtazapine experience is that of a soft tingling sensation across the body that is accompanied by strange but mild throbbing or aching sensation which is not capable of becoming anything but mildly euphoric even at high dosages. Alongside this, unique tactile hallucinations are commonly felt. These can be described as bizarrely structured vibrations and pulsations that spontaneously manifest themselves across the skin.
It is extremely sedating and often results in an overwhelmingly lethargic state. This causes trippers to suddenly feel as if they are extremely sleep deprived and have not slept for days, forcing you to sit down and generally feel as if you are constantly on the verge of passing out instead of engaging in physical activities. This sense of sleep deprivation increases proportional to dosage and eventually becomes powerful enough to force a person into keeping their eyes closed and then complete unconsciousness.
If physical activities such as walking are forcibly engaged in, a distinct but not completely incapacitating loss of motor control is noticed, as well as the consistent feeling that you are walking on top of a trampoline and not a normal solid floor.
These feelings are also accompanied by an intense appetite stimulation that is identical to “the munchies” that are experienced with marijuana.
The mental processes, thought patterns and general head space experienced during a high dose mirtazapine trip is one that is completely devoid of insight. There is absolutely no introspection, personal problem solving or creative insight to be found with this substance whatsoever and it’s because of this that mirtazapine holds absolutely no therapeutic potential when used in this sort of context.
Instead, it simply suppresses thought and slows it down, making it extremely difficult to converse and resulting in a general suppression of short term memory.
The visual effects of mirtazapine are completely on par with that of LSD or Psilocin (mushrooms) in terms of their intricacy and complexity.
The visuals themselves look extremely similar in appearance to those experienced during high dose spontaneous MDMA trips. Their specific style of geometry is fast moving, fine and zoomed out but extremely intricate in their detail. They give off a somehow ominous and synthetic vibe with a fairly consistent colour scheme of blues and greys.
The distortions do not seem to be present beyond tracers which make up for this in their ability to become all encompassing and smudging your entire visual field into a blur if you so much as move your eyes.
The hallucinations and imagery are also capable of becoming all encompassing; only presenting them selves when the trippers eyes are closed and capable of leading onto fully fledged 3D and completely random yet realistic scenarios, landscapes, people, and contact with autonomous entities. These hallucinations feel extremely hypnagogic and dream like, simply showing themselves as quick flashes of imagery at lower levels but become consistent and long lasting as dosage is increased. They manifest their contents as both completely spontaneous in subject matter and at other times, controlled and partially led by a persons current thought stream but consistently led by a persons current sensory input. This means that the sounds of people moving around you will be accompanied by hallucinations which serve to simulate visual replacements for the sensory gaps which are caused by a person being so sedated that they are forced keep their eyes closed and remain in darkness. Some examples of this from personal experience include simply seeing hallucinations of the people around me, the sounds of them talking and moving across the room, as well as browsing a readable version of the internet to the sounds of somebody typing on a keyboard and clicking a mouse while using a nearby computer.
The experience of audio hallucinations on mirtazapine is extremely common. They generally manifest themselves as extremely convincing sounds in the place of potential expected noises. The most common example of this seems to be hearing the voices of people in other rooms communicating with you in a level of detail that ranges from indistinct and garbled in vocabulary to completely coherent and understandable. These are capable of deliriously convincing people that they are real experiences immediately after they happen even when they are repeatedly reassured and convinced that they are just tripping on a level somewhat on par with deliriants.
Health effects, potential addiction and tolerance:
It is considered by the medical literature to be relatively safe in the event of an overdose. There are no significant cardiovascular adverse effects at 7 to 22 times the maximum recommended dose which is 45mg. The LD50 is 600-720mg/kg (oral, mice) and 320-490mg/kg (oral, rat) which extrapolates to something roughly between 2.9g - 3.6g for a 60kg human. This is 13 times or more the recreational dosage of roughly 210mg.
Mirtazapine is simply not enjoyable enough to become addictive and this only happens when it is taken daily as a prescription anti depressant over long periods of time. This results in dependence and intensely unpleasant withdrawal symptoms if a person decides to suddenly quit.
In terms of their tolerance, they do not seem to have one which lasts more than a few days when used for recreational purposes, but possesses a cross tolerance with other psychedelics such as LSD and mushrooms which lasts roughly one week.
Mirtazapine is unscheduled in all countries but available for prescription usage only, meaning that it is not illegal to possess but illegal to sell or buy without a license.
If you want to try mirtazapine for yourself you will have to get or know somebody with a prescription who is willing to share their drugs with you.
Mirtazapine is not a drug which will provide anybody with a “fun” experience but can provide extremely interesting experiences which are on par with any of the classical psychedelics despite the fact that the cognitive alterations are devoid of mental insight.
If you are planning on experimenting with this substance, be sure not to take it until 9pm at the earliest so that you do not drastically alter your sleeping pattern.
An Explanation of the Effect of Hallucinogens upon the Nervous System at the level of the Neurone
This article is intended to be a detailed explanation of how hallucinogens affect the brain, via the inhibition and excitation of neurotransmitters in the nervous system. This article is not written by me, but an extremely close friend of mine who is significantly more knowledgeable when it comes to science, and specifically chemistry. She is also my editor and grammar-checker, as well as scientific advisor and participator in 100% of the field of research that has gone into the previous several specific substance guides which have been posted on this website.
A neurone is a cell that carries electrical impulses. Information is processed and transmitted by the nervous system in the form of electrical and chemical signals. The neurone primarily comprises of a cell body, an axon and dendrites. The axon is a nerve fibre that carries electrical signals away from the cell body, to the end of the neurone. The end of the neurone then connects to the dendrites on the cell body of the next neurone, via a synapse. Drugs cause their effects due to their action on the neurones in the nervous system.
A nerve impulse is a self-propagating wave of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of the axon membrane. This electrical disturbance comprises of a temporary reversal of the electrical potential difference; not an electrical current. The axon is usually negatively charged compared to the outside of the axon, and this is known as the resting potential, the value of which is usually around -65mV. When a stimulus is received, a reversal in electrical potential difference is caused, and this is known as the action potential (normally around +40mV).
To begin, the inside of the axon is negatively charged, compared with the outside of the axon. The change in potential difference, that is needed to fire off an action potential, is controlled by the movement of sodium and potassium ions in and out of the axon. An ion is a positively or negatively charged molecule. This movement occurs via the action of ion pumps and channels. The ions cannot just diffuse in and out of the axon uncontrollably; this diffusion is prevented by a membrane around the axon. Periodically placed along the membrane are proteins that act as channels for ions to pass through. Sodium gated channels and potassium gated channels open and close to allow the ions to pass through only at specific times. Sodium-potassium pumps transport Na+ and K+ in and out of the axon.
The inside of the axon starts at around -65mV compared to the outside of the axon. An action potential is reached when the axon is at +40mV compared to the outside of the axon. This value of +40mV is reached by the movement of sodium and potassium ions in and out of the axon. Sodium-potassium pumps transport 2K+ into the axon for every 3Na+ transported out of the axon. Both sodium and potassium are in the forms of positive ions here. However, more sodium is removed from the axon compared to the potassium brought. This means the overall electro negativity is decreasing in the axon, and the axon is getting closer to reaching the potential difference of +40mV. Sodium ions then begin to diffuse back into the axon naturally, and potassium ions diffuse back out. At this stage however, potassium gated channels are open, whereas sodium gated channels are closed. This means the K+ can diffuse out faster than the Na+ can diffuse back into the axon. This increases the potential difference further between the inside and the outside of the axon.
Once an action potential has been established, it “moves” along the axon in a neurone. The action potential doesn’t move in a physical sense of the word; the reversal of electrical charge is instead reproduced at different points along the axon, in a “Mexican wave” effect. One point in an axon will become depolarised (depolarisation is a change in a cell’s membrane potential, making it more positive, or less negative), and this depolarisation is a stimulus for the next region of the axon to depolarise. As the next region depolarises, the previous region returns to normal and repolarises.
Eventually, the action potential will reach the end of an axon, known as a synaptic knob. A synapse occurs at a point where the axon of one neurone meets the dendrite of another neurone.
When an action potential reaches the synaptic knob, the calcium ion channels open, and Ca2+ enters the synaptic knob. As the Ca2+ enters, the vesicles containing the neurotransmitters fuse with the membrane of the pre-synaptic neurone, and the neurotransmitters are released into the synapse. The neurotransmitter molecules attach to the receptors on the sodium ion channels, which allow Na+ ions to diffuse into the post-synaptic neurone. This influx of Na+ generates a new action potential in the post-synaptic neurone. An enzyme is then released into the synapse that breaks the neurotransmitters down into small, precursor molecules. These fragments are reabsorbed by receptors on the pre-synaptic neurone, and they are then used to remake the neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters are then ready to release when a new action potential reaches the pre-synaptic neurone. This reabsorbing prevents the neurotransmitters from continuously binding with the sodium ion channels on the post-synaptic neurone, and firing off repeated new action potentials.
Neurotransmitters can have one of two effects. Excitatory neurotransmitters/receptors make it more likely that a new action potential will fire off. Inhibitory neurotransmitters/receptors make it less likely that a new action potential will fire off. Many drugs work by affecting the way neurotransmitters work. There’s a handy table listing the effects of different neurotransmitters right here. Drugs can stimulate the nervous system by creating more action potentials in the post-synaptic neurone. They can do this by mimicking a neurotransmitter, stimulating the release of more neurotransmitter, inhibiting the re-uptake receptor on the pre-synaptic neurone or by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter. Agonists are chemicals that bind to a receptor and trigger a response, often by mimicking the neurotransmitter.
Drugs are also capable of inhibiting the nervous system by creating fewer action potentials in the post-synaptic neurone. This can be done by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitter, or blocking receptors on the sodium/potassium ion channels. This reduces the body’s response to impulses. Antagonists work by blocking or dampening signals of agonist drugs/neurotransmitters.
The Action of Different Drugs on the Nervous System
Psychedelics mostly act on serotonin receptors, and act as full or partial agonists. LSD, LSA, psilocin, DMT, mescaline and the 2Cx family all work as partial agonists. The table below shows a few of the commonly known psychedelics, and their action on receptors. The 5HT receptor system acts via the neurotransmitter of serotonin, D1 acts via dopamine, and the A-2 system acts via noradrenaline. The scale is from 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest affinity. The chart above is colour coded with a traffic light system. Green refers to an affinity of 3.5-4, representing a very high affinity. Yellow is 2-3.5, representing medium affinity. Orange is below 2. Any value that is orange/below 2 should be disregarded, as the affinity isn’t high enough to cause any great effect. Grey is 0, meaning no affinity at all to the receptor.
The current scientific consensus is that the 5HT-2A receptor is the one targeted by drugs responsible for psychedelic experiences. However, drugs like mescaline and MDMA are both capable of inducing psychedelic experiences on par with that of psilocin and LSD, but show no affinity to the 5HT-2A receptor.
LSD, for example, works by fitting into the receptors on the post-synaptic neurone. It has a higher affinity than serotonin itself for the serotonin receptors, specifically 5HT receptors, and therefore prevents serotonin binding to the receptors by competing with it.
The diagram above shows the structural similarities between the psychedelics. The three classes (phenethylamines, lysergamides and tryptamines) all contain the same chemical rings, which have been labelled. A represents the benzene ring, which all three classes contain. B represents the pyrrole ring, in both tryptamines and lysergamides. A and B together form the indole ring. C (cyclohexane) and D are only contained in the lysergamides, possibly contributing to its potency.
Dissociatives act as non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists, meaning they inhibit glutamate molecules. Glutamate is the neurotransmitter responsible for telling the body when it’s “awake”, for building up memories and for regulating awareness, mood and movement. NMDA receptors allow for electrical signals to pass between neurones in the brain and spinal column; for the signals to pass, the receptor must be open. NMDA receptor antagonists close the NMDA receptors, by preventing the glutamate from binding to it. This disconnection of neurones leads to loss of feeling, difficulty moving,and eventually the k-hole. It is also this disconnection that causes the anaesthetic properties of dissociatives.
PCP, MXE and ketamine fall into the arylcyclohexylamine class of chemicals, which possess NMDA receptor antagonist properties. DXM/DXO fall into the morphinan class of chemicals. Nitrous oxide, however, is unique, due to being an inorganic molecule. Another inorganic dissociative is xenon, which is also an NMDA receptor antagonist. However, information on recreational use is limited.
Deliriants are antagonists towards the cholinergic receptors, blocking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter responsible for regulating the sleep cycle, dreaming alertness, and for building memory. The prolonged suppression of cholinergic activity and REM sleep due to deprivation or amphetamine abuse creates psychotic episodes which may be defined as bursts of dream activity erupting spontaneously into waking states. Deliriants could therefore be considered to trigger a similar state by blocking acetylcholine and suppressing cholinergic system activity. Causing trippers to begin dreaming whilst maintaining full conscious awareness. Deliriants are known for causing people to have no memory of their experience, tying in with their anticholinergic effects. Anticholinergics are split into two class; anti-muscarinic (act on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors) and anti-nicotinic (act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors). Anti-muscarinic drugs include DPH, scopolamine and atropine. They are all competitive antagonists, meaning they bind to the receptor, but do not activate it.
Atypical drugs don’t fit into the three basic hallucinogen categories, and act in a number of different ways. MDMA is an entactogenic drug that works as a re-uptake inhibitor targeting serotonin receptors. This leads to the prevention of the re-uptake of the serotonin. More serotonin in then in the synapse, so the receptors on the post-synaptic neurone continue to be fired off. Serotonin is known for its control of mood, often being referred to as “the happy chemical”, along with dopamine. Muscimol is a GABA agonist. Salvia is a k-opioid receptor agonist. The k-opioid receptor is responsible for altering the perception of pain, consciousness, gravity, fear, mood and motor control. This explains the sensations of intense gravity, painful tingling and paranoia during Salvia trips. Ibogaine is 5HT-2A agonist, an NMDA antagonist and the k-opioid receptor agonist. The tryptamine core of ibogaine causes the affinity to the 5HT system.
This section has described the chemistry and neuroscience at the basic level of the neurone. However, I intend to write a second part to this article, which describes in detail the effects of hallucinogens, and specifically psychedelics, on specific parts of the brain, and how this translates into the subjective components of the psychedelic experience.
2C-E, broken down and described
Onset : 20 - 90 minutes
Duration : 6 - 10 hours
Normal After Effects : 2 - 6 hours
Light : 5 - 10 mg
Common : 10 - 15 mg
Strong : 15 - 30 mg
Heavy : 30 - 40 mg +
2C-E (2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine) is a psychedelic and phenethylamine of the 2C family. Its chemical synthesis was first published in 1991 within the book PiHKaL: A Chemical Love Story by Dr. Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin. This was a groundbreaking book that included detailed synthesis instructions for over 200 psychedelic compounds (most of which Shulgin discovered himself), including bioassays, dosages, and other commentary. For those who are interested, 2C-E’s specific entry, synthesis and qualitative commentary can be found here.
The mechanism that produces the psychedelic effects of 2C-E is a direct result from its action as a 5-HT2A serotonin receptor agonist in the brain, a mechanism of action shared by all other hallucinogenic tryptamines and phenethylamines.
Many people have reported that the general effects of 2C-E are similar to those of the other psychedelic phenethylamines, but far more intense in terms of its physical body load and visual effects. The experience is often described as similar in appearance to LSD, and many reports indicate that the effects of this particular chemical may be overly intense for those who are not already experienced with psychedelics. The subjective effects of which I will now begin to break down and describe…
The physical sensation of a 2C-E trip is a very unusual one. It is manifested as one of the most proportionally intense body highs in comparison to the trips accompanying visual alterations that I have found within any of the classical psychedelics. This is something which is only beaten in terms of its overwhelming forcefulness by high dose AMT and 5-meo-DMT experiences.
It can be described as an intensely pleasurable, energetic pins and needles sensation that constantly encompasses a person’s entire body. It is usually felt over every square inch of the skin but occasionally manifests itself in the form of a continuously shifting tingling sensation that travels up and down the body spontaneously in waves. This feeling is accompanied by an overall enhancement of the pleasure derived from tactile sensations. In comparison to LSD, it is much sharper and feels as if it is somehow considerably less natural and more synthetic. This everlasting droning is immensely pleasurable and is capable of leaving people completely incapacitated, writhing and trembling on the floor in ecstasy. However, it can also become overwhelmingly intense and a burden at higher levels, with many people reporting that they find it to be quite uncomfortable instead of euphoric.
It is sometimes characterized by urges to shift the position of ones body and prolonged tensing of unusual combinations of muscle groups.
It is extremely stimulating at levels which do not become overwhelming, resulting in a shakiness and unsteadiness of the hands but encouraging trippers to move around, run, dance, climb and generally engage in physical activities.
An extremely unique but commonly felt physical component of the 2C-E trip is the way in which it heightens and enhances sexual arousal in a way that I have not yet found within any other psychedelic. It’s worth noting that although all other psychedelics such as LSD or mushrooms do profoundly enhance the physical sensation of sexual pleasure if it is forcibly engaged in, they do not cause people to feel sexually aroused regardless of social context or setting in the same way that 2C-E does. When experienced, this sensation is not overwhelming or out of control in anyway but simply remains as something that the tripper is constantly aware of. If sexual activities of any kind are engaged in, they are found to be immensely more pleasurable beyond anything that could be possible sober, with orgasm becoming difficult to reach but completely possible to attain. If orgasm is reached, it is consistently accompanied by an incredibly intense and overpowering but hilariously irrelevant, visual explosion of completely non sexual imagery, hallucinations and geometric forms.
In terms of the physical discomfort experienced on this substance, mild to extreme nausea is commonly reported when consumed in moderate to high dosages and either passes instantly once the tripper has vomited or gradually fades by itself as the peak sets in.
The thought patterns and mental processes triggered by 2C-E consist of two different styles of head space that depend entirely on the setting. These manifest themselves as psychedelic introspection when taken alone and an entactogenic sociability when taken with others. Its entactogenic effects are a little weaker and less sharp than those found on substances such as MDMA but can be described as general feelings of,
- Increased sociability and feelings of communication being easy or simple
- Increased urge to communicate with others
- Increased empathy and feelings of closeness or connection with others
- Reduced insecurity, defensiveness, and fear of emotional injury
These effects may be weaker in comparison to classical entactogens such as MDMA, but are still strong enough to provide a specific set of positive and therapeutic changes in perception that can last from weeks to a lifetime after the experience. If substances such as Mushrooms and LSD are exclusively for solving personal problems, 2C-E can be just as useful for solving interpersonal problems as well.
This is done through inducing strong feelings of love, and empathy for the people around you, making it useful for mending pre-existing emotional disputes and reinventing the bonds between friendships and romantic partners. This allows people to truly express their emotions and understand the perspectives of other people whilst maintaining full control over their actions.
The introspective effects of 2C-E are present but not quite as profound or as sharp as similar states of personal problem solving found on LSD and Mushrooms. However, they are considerably more intense anything found with 2C-I. They generally manifest themselves only when the tripper is alone, as the urge to socialize with others seems to suppress and overwhelm it in the company of other people. This state can be described as distinct levels of accelerated thought that consistently direct themselves towards an unbiased analysis of the self and ones actions, leading people to therapeutic and mentally beneficial changes in their perspective on themselves and the world around them.
These two separate states are both accompanied by feelings of emotional euphoria and happiness. In positive settings, it consistently triggers involuntary smiling and an increased sense of humour but otherwise relatively normal thought processes, meaning that 2C-E doesn’t impair judgment as deeply as do many other psychedelics with otherwise-similar effects.
2C-E can also produce distortions in the user’s perception of the passage of time leading to an illusion of moderate to extreme time dilation. This feels as if it stems from the fact that during a 2C-E trip, such huge amounts of experience are packed into extremely short periods of time in comparison to normal sober living.
The visuals attributed to 2C-E visuals follow a specific style which can be described as sharp, clean, angular and somehow digital, synthetic looking geometry, with bright and vivid colours. They are signifigantly more powerful when a person is by themselves and very comparable to LSD in terms of their stylistic appearance but slightly less intricate and come with a style of movement and structure that is more comparable to Mushrooms. The visuals are fast moving and change by means of flowing, swirling and morphing into themselves to create new and constantly changing geometric forms. These visuals are very high in structure, spontaneously morphing into comprehensible forms and hallucinatory objects or imagery made of a condensed closed eye visual based material. As the visuals increase proportional to dosage, they eventually give way to level 6A psychedelic visuals and feelings of experiencing everything within the entire universe all at once.
The distortions found within 2C-E are significantly smoother and more believable looking in comparison to 2C-I, with a level of generic psychedelic clarity that is completely on par with LSD or mushrooms but are much less likely to distort the environment beyond recognition even at higher doses.
The hallucinations and imagery can become extremely prevalent when a person is by themselves without external influence. They seem to fit and follow the rhythm of a person’s thought patterns, stemming from an initial ability to visualize concepts within the minds eye with a great sense of clarity. This eventually increases until a persons thought stream is manifested in front of them in a bizarre psychedelic fashion that the tripper has a great sense of partial control over. As dosage increases further, these are eventually capable of manifesting themselves as vivid hallucinatory scenarios such as contact with autonomous entities, imagined landscapes and scenarios.
2C-E’s distortion of sound is quite profound and produces more auditory enhancements, effects, distortions and hallucinations than any other psychedelic which I have come across. The auditory distortions include the flanging of sounds, echoing and pitch shifting. The auditory hallucinations can be described as the perceived synthesis of new sounds not derived from one’s immediate environment, such as phasers, scraping, drilling, and popping. Most of the more unusual distortions of sound are only experienced after the ingestion (or, rarely, insufflation) of high doses.
This is accompanied by a powerful enhancement of auditory perception. Resulting in noise suddenly becoming extremely loud, clear and crisp. Something which triggers levels of increased music appreciation that are once again completely on par with LSD. This is experienced in the form of music sounding “wider” and a profound ability to comprehend every single piece of noise throughout each separate layer of complex songs in a level of detail that is simply not possible sober. The profound sensation of being able to fully understand the emotional intent of the music being listened to is also present, resulting in states of ecstatic euphoria and mental involvement when this drug is combined with any enjoyable music of a tripper’s personal preference.
Health effects, potential addiction and tolerance:
The toxicity and long term health effects of recreational 2C-E use does not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. This is because 2C-E is a research chemical with very little history of human usage. Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 2C-E within the psychedelic community suggests that there are no negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses or using it very sparingly but nothing can be completely guaranteed.
The biggest danger with this substance seems to be confusing it with other more potent psychedelics such as Bromo-DragonFLY as 2CE which is active in the 200 - 800 micrograms range. This means that it is roughly as potent as LSD and extremely dangerous if taken in place of 2C-E, which has resulted in fatal overdoses on multiple separate occasions thanks to accidental mislabelling of bags from research chemical vendors. There are cases in the media of people ordering 2-CE, among other research chemicals, from online vendors, and receiving Bromo-DragonFLY instead.
2C-E does not seem to physically addictive but could potentially become habit-forming as there is no real tolerance attributed to this drug, meaning that it could potentially be used multiple days in a row if somebody chose to do so. This can be prevented by manually limiting your usage of the drug and is practically unheard of, with most users noting that the desire to use them can actually decrease with use thanks to its powerfully introspective and mentally therapeutic effects.
- As of July 9, 2012, in the United States 2C-E is a Schedule I substance under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act of 2012, making possession, distribution and manufacture illegal.
- As of April 8, 2007 Denmark added 2C-E to the list of Schedule I controlled substances.
- New Zealand has a catch-all Analogues section in Schedule 3 / Class C of their drug laws that makes 2C-E a Schedule 3 compound.
- In Sweden, 2C-E has been controlled since Oct 1, 2004.
- As of 2002, 2C-E is illegal in the United Kingdom and a Class A controlled substance under The Misuse of Drugs Act.
Else where in the world, it is completely legal. If you want to try 2C-E despite full knowledge of the legal risks it can be purchased online through various research chemical vendors of which I cannot legally mention the names of. This means that if you want to do this, you will have to find a source for yourself using the power of Google search.
In conclusion, I was extremely impressed with 2C-E and it exceeded my expectations many times over. I was originally expecting a poor man’s LSD with psychedelic visuals but no true hallucinatory states. Instead I found myself with a substance that is more comparable to mushrooms and extremely useful for both psychonautical exploration and recreational activities such as raves, festivals and parties for those who are already experienced with the substance. It is even useful when taken at very low sub threshold dosages as a motivating background stimulant as I actually wrote this entire article on approximately 0.07mg and it genuinely helped me keep the words flowing and to maintain a strong sense of focus.
Alexander Shulgin has been quoted as saying
“Someday, the full character of 2C-E will be understood, but for the moment, let it rest as being a difficult and worth-while material. A very much worth-while material.”
This is a statement which I completely agree with and I genuinely hope that this article has contributed to increasing the psychedelic community’s understanding of this fascinating substance.
Over the upcoming months I will definitely be slowly working my through Shulgin’s magical half-dozen (which can be found here) and documenting each of their subjective effects in as much detail as human English will possibly allow me to.